Neolith and Halcolith


The New Stone Age (Neolithic) is the last period of the Stone Age (spanning in the Bulgarian lands from 6000 to 4000 BC). It follows the Pleistocene and early years of the Holocene Mesolithic culture. It begins with the discovery and spread of agriculture and ends when metal tools replace stone ones and become widespread in the Stone-Copper, Bronze or Iron Age, depending on the geographical area. The New Stone Age is not precisely a fixed chronological period, as it refers to the earliest stages of sedentary life and the presence of agricultural activity in individual human societies. For example, in the Middle East, men began to cultivate the land about 1000 - 1500 years before these skills were spread and reached human settlements in Europe. 

The New Stone Age, in particular, has been associated with a group of specific behavioural and cultural changes among human communities, including the cultivation of selected crops and the use of domestic animals. The transition from hunting and gathering and nomadic / semi-nomadic lifestyle to agriculture and sedentary lifestyles is typical of the Old and Middle Stone Age, and was called the Neolithic Revolution. From 10,000 to 8,000 BC people cultivated rudimentary crops, and raised goats and sheep. As of 7,000 BC, other animals start to be raised – such as cows and pigs. The domestication of the dog and the settlement in permanent villages and stilt houses took place at that period. The techniques involving pottery appear. The development of these skills is not simultaneous, and they developed at different times across different parts of the world.