The way of life of the Proto-Bulgarians

The ancient Bulgarians had well-developed traditions in the development of agriculture, animal husbandry and trade, which contributed greatly to their prosperity. 


The direct evidence of agricultural development by the ancient Bulgarians is generally small. Only with the discovery of charred wheat leftovers in the Pro-Bulgarian settlement in Durankulak, did archaeologists conclusively confirm that the Pro-Bulgarians had well-developed agriculture. The relatively low admixture of parasitic plants found in the wheat is evidence of the high agro-technical culture of our ancestors in these lands. The scientific supposition asserts that the situation was similar to that of the Volga Bulgarians.

Livestock breeding

Livestock constituted a significant part of the wealth and livelihood of Bulgarians living within the borders of Bulgarian lands. Horses and cattle were raised. According to historical sources, the references to horned cattle are earlier than horse breeding, which indicates that it has played a significant role in ancient Bulgarian farming. As highly developed cattle breeding occurs in areas where extensive farming is practiced, this is strong evidence that Bulgarian livestock farming differs significantly from that of typical nomadic farming. In the latter, the horse is a major source of labour and food.


The Bulgarians who settled on our lands were actively trading, according to various sources and travelers. The active foreign trade provided was added to the state treasury revenues, which were used for construction of new roads, fortresses, shopping centers.

By the treaty he concluded with Byzantium in 716, Khan Tervel settled the conditions under which Bulgarian merchants could import goods into the empire and the Byzantines into Bulgaria. On the basis of the same agreement, a permanent Bulgarian market was created in the capital Constantinople, where lively trade was bubbling.