Rome is one of the greatest civilizations of the ancient world. From 753 BC (the year of founding) until its disappearance in 476 AD due to inner conflicts, outside attacks and other factors it undergoes three consecutive stages of development – Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire while also undergoing different forms of lordship, varying from a monarchy through an oligarchic republic to an autocratic empire.
During its history Rome conquers and rules most Greek countries in the Mediterranean Sea and the Celtic areas of Western Europe. The administration of the empire gradually develops into two separate halves, an eastern and a western one, which leads to a cultural separation. Towards year 476 the western half was already obviously following its own path – the church rose and took on a range of administrative functions. The eastern half of the Empire (Byzantium) with its center Constantinople, preserved a part of the spirit of the Roman country all the way to 1453 when the capital fell under the attack of the ottoman Turks. The Roman Empire’s influence over Europe, the East and Northern Africa was considerable. The materialistic and spiritual culture, which forms and develops from the end of the first century BC until the 5th century AD leaves permanent traces.
Rome united, preserved and developed the achievements of different cultures through the antique ages under a common idea and creates the basis, on which the European civilization developed. The roman concrete (2nd century BC) was introduced, grout gained popularity with brick constructions, which brought construction and architecture to a new level. Forums were built, as well as triumphant archways, baths, amphitheaters, rich atrium-peristyle homes and multistore buildings. Archways, arcades, vaults, domes and architectural orders were used. Monumental sculpture and historical relief developed and wall painting gained a decorative character. Architecture and the building of cities preserved their character for ages.