FIRST BULGARIAN KINGDOM
The founding of Danube Bulgaria on the Balkans is probably the most important event on the European continent in century VII.
Initially the leading role in the new country belonged to the Old Bulgarians. They established themselves through strict hierarchy, experience and the traditions from the Old Bulgaria of Kubrat.
The acceptance of Christianity in century IX is of core historical importance, because it is connected to the founding of the Bulgarian church, the spreading of the Slavic writing system and the evolution of the country into a kingdom. The biggest bloom in this period belonged to the Old Bulgarian literature. The parts, which were preserved through time reveal the richness of ideas, genres and styles, which lead to the time between the end of IX century and the start of X century being defined as “The Golden Age of Bulgarian Literature.” This is owed to the traditions, created by the students of Cyril and Methodius and their schools – the Pliska-Preslav one and other in Ohrid. The graphical system was reformed and gradually the Glagolitic was replaced by the more practical Cyrillic alphabet. The scholars of the Golden Age contributed to the final establishment of the Old Bulgarian language and the Bulgarian nationality. In those times Bulgaria outdid many European countries in regards to literacy in their own spoken language and started spreading rich and varying literature among the other peoples.
The fall of the First Bulgarian Kingdom in 1018 is owed mostly to the long and tiresome wars with the Byzantine Empire.