NEOLITHIC and CHALCOLITHIC

The New Stone Age is in particular associated with a group of specific behavioral and cultural changes among human societies, including cultivation of crop plants and the use of domestic animals.

NEOLITHIC

New Stone Age or Neolithic is the last period of the Stone Age (in Bulgarian lands form 6000 to 4000 BC). It follow Pleistocene and early Holocene Mesolithic years of culture, starting withe the discovery and spread of agriculture and ending when metal tools coal and become widespread in the Copper, Bronze or Iron Age, depending on geographical area. Neolithic does not constitute a specific chronological period, and refers to the earliest stages of settled life and availability of agricultural activity in various human societies. For example, in the Middle East societies began to cultivate the land in October 1000-1500 years before these skills to spread and reach the primary societies in Europe.

Stone Age in particular is associated with a group of specific behavioral and cultural changes among human societies, including the growing of crops and breeding of domestic animals.The transition from hunting and accumulation and nomadic / semi-nomadic lifestyle typical of Оld and Middle Stone Age to agriculture and sedentary is called Neolithic Revolution.

From 10,000 to 8000 BC people cultivate crops and to bred goats and sheep. From 7000 BC began to bred, and other animals – (cows, pigs), domesticated dog began living in permanent settlements and pile. Appears and pottery. The development of this skills is not simultaneously and they appear at different times in different parts of the world.

CHALCOLITHIC

The Chalcolithic (also known as The Copper Age) is an epoch in human development, the transition between the Neolithic and Bronze Age associated with the opening of the first processed metal – copper. The term was coined in 1876 by the Hungarian archaeologist Ferenc Pula on an International Аrchaeological Congress and specify the classification of Thompson, which said that Bronze Age follows directly Stone Age.

Copper Age period covers approximately 4000-3000 BC., as in some areas of the world continues more, but in others areas absent it all. Generally Chalcolithic is considered like an early Bronze Age, but some scientists consider it for a separate period. In this age were manufactured copper tools, which, although they are soft and fragile, are more precise and better than the previous stone. However, throughout this period the use of stone remain more common due to the still primitive method of extraction and processing of metals. During this period, is found for the first time, and other metals such as gold and tin.

During the Copper Age began the construction of a hierarchical social system and observed a greater division of labor than in previous eras. The most important finding in Bulgaria from Chalcolithic era is the Varna Chalcolithic necropolis, in which was found the oldest processed gold in the world.


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